These results were consistent with the results of earlier studies19, 20 which demonstrated that situational barriers could affect nutritional adherence among different sets of people. They reported that it was difficult to adhere to the diet when the day to day routine was disrupted such as at the weekend, when being in a celebration, eating and traveling out.
Moreover, in these situations, external cues encourage people to eat more probably. In a study performed in Finland by Lappalainan et al., eating out especially with friends or coworkers was one of the barriers to recommended diet in patients with cardiovascular disease21. Foods especially high calorie ones are offered and available in ceremonies and parties of Middle-east countries.
The results of Maleka et al. Kuwait19. Women with school education reported situational obstacles more than women with a main or secondary education. Probably, high-educated women had extended social contacts and experience more events that disrupt daily routine than low-educated ones. In this study, obese women indicated that stress and melancholy made them to eat too much and not to stick to the dietary plan. In Sanlier and Unusan study22, the obese, Turkish women got a higher average score compared to normal weight women within the strain factors scale. The results of the analysis carried out by Dragan and Akhtar-Danesh23, indicated that higher BMI was associated with a more severe form of melancholy.
In the present study, utilized women reported depression and stress as important obstacles to diet adherence more than housewives and students. Obviously, employed women experience more stress than others do because they not only have stress at work but also have responsibilities of the house working and childcare. Consequently, these demanding circumstances keep them from compliance with the weight-loss diet completely. There are a few mechanisms suggested by previous studies about the partnership between stress and overeating. One of these is the association between stress and feeding via opioid system in the body24.
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- Average requires 2800 calorie consumption per day
- Eating a banana between foods helps stabilize bloodstream glucose and reduce nausea from morning sickness
- Walk away from each food feeling slightly starving
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Eating is both pleasurable and rewarding24. Researchers have shown that eating activates neural substrate such as dopamine, opioid, gABA, and benzodiazepine neurotransmitters that lead to boost disposition and relieve stress25. In stressful events, endogenous opioid neuropeptides, involved in rewarding processes in eating behaviors, stimulate appetite by palatable foods. Consequently, eating high-energy foods alleviates behavioral symptoms of stress26.
The other important obstacles were “food craving” especially sweet tooth, which is common among women29. Positive associations have been proven between food cravings and excessive overeating30, BMI31, binge bulimia32, and eating and low compliance with fat loss programs31. Much of the literature of food craving has been specialized in carbohydrate cravings30.
this craving has been evidenced mostly in women30. In premenstrual symptoms, the amount of serotonin reduced in the brain resulting in changes in mood and sensitizing to stress and melancholy32. Subsequently, yearnings to the food that raise the proportion of tryptophan in accordance with other amino acid solution are increased33. Probably, the subjects of present research tended to take foods that were avoided from, because of diet restraint.
Understanding the mechanisms root food cravings and aversions can lead to improved options for the avoidance and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. Women indicated that family meal routines and feeding children were challenges in the way of pursuing a weight-loss diet. Additionally, they would not have enough support of their husbands, parents, and friends to continue to stick with the recommended diet. A few of them, who especially spent enough time with their friends, claimed that friends made them to eat high-calorie foods. Satia et al. demonstrated that interpersonal pressure to change the diet was associated with higher excess fat consumption34 significantly.
Kearney et al. found that non-adherent women reported more difficulty resisting negative feelings and prior food preferences and habits35; these were also more concerned about negative responses from others. In this study, employed women perceived this barrier more than other groups. Probably, women who work, have little time to get ready different foods for themselves and the other person in their family. Moreover, they might be under the pressure of coworkers for eating at work. Minimal important barriers were “undesirable effects of weight-loss diet” and “cost of diet”. The weight-loss diets delivered in nutritional counseling centers in this scholarly study were scientific diets that were recommended by nutritionists.